Skip to content

C

Call to tender

Call to tender

An invitation to contractors to tender for a work package, sub-task or project. The main content is the specification of what is to be performed. It also details professional qualification requirements, completion deadlines etc.

Career development plans

Career development plans

Plans relating to the long-term career development of individual members of staff (in large-scale organisations).

Chance

Chance

A possibility due to a favourable combination of circumstances.

Change committee

Change committee

A committee that makes decisions which change project objectives, or whose impact exceeds certain limits. In large-scale projects, it is one of the configuration committee's or steering committee's sub-committees. In medium-sized projects, the steering committee also functions as the change committee, and in small-scale projects the people responsible for the project make the decisions relating to changes.

Change management

Change management

Assessment of all change requests, especially when they affect project objectives. Initiation, monitoring and documentation of changes to the project result. Relates to changes in the project environment.

Change of objectives

Change of objectives

A change to the confirmed objectives, at the request of the customer, for instance, or because of changes to the legislative or market framework Change management.

Change order

Change order

Document for the implementation of approved changes (ideally integrated in the change request). Generally provides information to some recipients and instructions to others.

Change request

Change request

Basic document in change management, generally containing the following information:

  • Request owner
  • Aspects of the project affected
  • Reasons and justification
  • Impact (on costs, deadlines, technology…)
  • Documents to be updated
  • Comments
  • Decision
  • Instructions on how to implement the change

Chart of accounts

Chart of accounts

The organisation sets up a chart of accounts that is closely related to the accounting system and takes its business and project-specific requirements into account.

Circumstances

Circumstances

All conditions under which the project is implemented. These can include the project sponsor's financial position, the political framework or prices in the buying and selling markets.

Claim

Claim

A claim is made in respect of unscheduled work or work that exceeds the contractually-agreed scope of performance and remuneration.

Claim management (= CM)

Claim management (= CM)

Aspects of professional project management related to the structuring and prevention of claims. It includes the documentation of all data relevant for the claim, the legal and economic evaluation of this data and the assertion or rejection of claims.

Coding

Coding

The identification of an object with a code, establishing an unambiguous relationship between the object and its description. Differentiation is made between

  • the characters used: numerical, alphabetical, alphanumeric codes,
  • the structure: unstructured codes or codes with separators (e.g. / , ., - ),
  • the purpose: identification codes as a system of ordering (every element has its code) or as a system of classification (every feature has a code).

Combined WBS

Combined WBS

A work breakdown structure is combined if some of its sub-tasks (at the higher levels) are object-oriented and some are function-oriented.

Communication

Communication

A process in which information is exchanged, which makes it a specific form of social interaction. Also: all technical equipment and rules for the use of such equipment to ensure communication between people and processes in a project. See Information service and reporting for relevant processes.

Configuration

Configuration

Functions and physical features of a product as described in the product's technical documentation and implemented in the product.

Configuration accounting

Configuration accounting

A process, supporting configuration management, that includes the registration and archiving of changes and status reports.

Configuration audit

Configuration audit

Audit to ascertain whether the actual implementation status conforms to configuration documents at certain times or on certain occasions.

Configuration control (= change management)

Configuration control (= change management)

Essential aspect of configuration management in which the planned configuration is monitored and intervening action is initiated or advised when necessary.

Configuration documents

Configuration documents

Detailed product documentation with identification codes for configuration units and individual parts.

Configuration identification (= configuration determination)

Configuration identification (= configuration determination)

An essential aspect of configuration management:

  • Breakdown of product into configuration units (CU)
  • Coding and identification of the CUs and the relevant documents
  • Description of the CU (including the regulations and processes that apply)

Configuration management

Configuration management

Detailed and complete compilation and documentation of project results and their systematic updating when changes in the project take place. Technical and organisational measures for configuration identification, monitoring, accounting and auditing.

Configuration manager

Configuration manager

A project management function or position with responsibility for monitoring the target configuration and intervening with appropriate measures whenever necessary.

Configuration structure

Configuration structure

Detailed breakdown of a product into configuration units and the systematic coding and identification of these units. Product of configuration identification.

Conflict management

Conflict management

Measures for conflict prevention or resolution.

Conflict spiral

Conflict spiral

  • Misunderstanding
  • Confusion
  • Anger
  • Blame
  • Alienation
  • Resentment

Continuous improvement process (= CIP)

Continuous improvement process (= CIP)

One of the basic quality management methods. Continuous improvement is based on the principle of constantly seeking the root causes of problems so that all of the organisation's systems (products, processes, activities) can be improved.

Contract

Contract

A legally-binding agreement between two parties.

Contract administration

Contract administration

Design, analysis, conclusion and amendment of contracts, taking into consideration interrelationships with change and claim management and the monitoring of contract execution.

Contract analysis

Contract analysis

Detailed analysis of a draft contract provided by one party. It forms the basis for agreement on contract design between the parties to the contract, i.e. before contract conclusion.

Contract design

Contract design

All processes relating to the agreement and formulation of the contract up to contract conclusion. Agreement has to be reached with regard to technical aspects, legal and commercial regulations, financing and budgeting, the incorporation of framework agreements and many other aspects.

Contract execution

Contract execution

All processes relating to the execution and/ or amendment of the contract after it has been signed.

Contractor

Contractor

From the project's viewpoint, the contractor is the legal entity or natural person who contracts the implementation of a project.

Control

Control

The activity of managing or exerting control over something. Also a mechanism that controls the operation of a machine.

Control charts

Control charts

Charts and tables showing an order of events for controlling purposes (e.g. milestone trend or cost trend analysis).

Controller (= project controller)

Controller (= project controller)

The member of the project management team responsible for Controlling. Generally a position with its own job description. The controller essentially performs a service function. In simplified terms, the controller is responsible for ensuring that the status of individual projects is transparent for all stakeholders at all times. He supports the project manager in his operational project management functions and, if necessary, recommends project control measures. In small projects, the controller is often the project manager.

Controlling

Controlling

The on-going acquisition of current data relating to time, expenditure/ costs and performance/ quality (for project control), evaluation of variance analyses and, if necessary, the initiation of measures. Controlling can comprise very different activities, depending on the controller's authority.

Controlling measure

Controlling measure

Intervention when an unscheduled variance occurs.

Core team (= project management team)

Core team (= project management team)

Team consisting of the management staff of a project (e.g. project manager, sub-project manager).
Risk of confusion: the project management team is not the project team!

Cost

Cost

Expenditure of funds for goods or services to produce the deliverable.

  • Appropriation as: unit cost, overhead cost
  • Allocated to: cost unit, cost centre
  • Method of generation: cost type
  • Time sequence: initial cost, follow-up cost, lifecycle cost

Cost baseline

Cost baseline

Chart or table showing costs throughout the project lifecycle (y-coordinate = costs per time interval)

Cost centre

Cost centre

A place where costs are incurred that can be defined in terms of physical parameters or position in the organisation. For example, cost centres can be departments or individual machines. The costs can either be assigned directly to the cost centre (e.g. depreciation of the machines located in the cost centre) or apportioned with the assistance of a formula (e.g. building heating costs). The former are cost centre unit costs, the latter cost centre overhead costs.

Cost management

Cost management

Determination of costs for individual activities, work packages and the project as a whole as the basis for project financing, budgeting and control.

Cost objectives

Cost objectives

Primarily the absolute upper limits for cost in a project and its work packages. Cost objectives can also be defined for costs that are generated over time or for the distribution of costs by cost type.

Cost rate

Cost rate

Costs per unit; either unit of time (e.g. per hour) or unit of measurement (e.g. per cubic metre).

Cost to complete (= net income value, earned value, projected costs of work performed, budgeted cost of work performed)

Cost to complete (= net income value, earned value, projected costs of work performed, budgeted cost of work performed)

The costs of an activity or project in terms of its degree of completion. Estimated cost to complete means projected costs of work/ services performed.

Cost trend analysis (= CTA)

Cost trend analysis (= CTA)

A CTA is used to obtain information about the future development of project costs based on estimate to completion. A realistic CTA can only be made in conjunction with progress measurement. Cost deviations should be viewed as negative if they are associated with performance delays. (See cost to complete)

Cost type

Cost type

Cost unit defined in terms of method of generation, e.g.:

  • Personnel cost: wages and salaries, non-wage labour costs
  • Material expense: materials, machines, buildings
  • Financing cost: interest payments, charges
  • Services: energy, consulting
  • Charges: Taxes and levies

Cost units

Cost units

In project management, the project is always the cost unit. However, sub-tasks/ sub-objects and work packages can also function as cost units, and an object-oriented WBS is ideal as the cost unit structure.

Costing

Costing

Predetermination of project costs in terms of amount and distribution over time. See cost baseline and total cost curve.

Craftsman

Craftsman

A type of resource, common in construction, that is defined in terms of a trade or craft (e.g. painter, bricklayer).

Critical

Critical

In project management, critical generally means crucial, decisive or important. The critical path is the longest path and therefore the duration-determining activity chain in the process schedule. Critical resources are those used if bottlenecks occur on the critical path.

Cross-functional (= interdisciplinary)

Cross-functional (= interdisciplinary)

Presence of different expertise areas within a work environment.

Current status documentation

Current status documentation

Documentation of the current status.

Customer

Customer

The legal entity that commissions, finances, and accepts the project. In smaller projects, this is generally a natural person who is then also the contact. In large-scale projects, it is important that the customer appoints authorised agents as members of a steering committee.

Customer specification

Customer specification

All of the customer's requirements in respect of goods or services ordered from a contractor. A list of all the customer's or user's requirements of the project (especially objectives, scope of delivery and services, constraints). The customer specification should also be used by the project, as customer, when it subcontracts work.

Customer specification (= requirement specification)

Customer specification (= requirement specification)

All of the customer's requirements in respect of goods or services ordered from a contractor. A list of all the customer's or user's requirements of the project (especially objectives, scope of delivery and services, constraints). The customer specification should also be used by the project, as customer, when it subcontracts work.