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Here you will find the definitions of the most important terms from this chapter.

Project environment

The environment in which the project is formulated, evaluated and implemented. This has a direct or indirect impact on the project and/or is influenced by the project.

PESTEL analysis

Political, economic, socio-cultural, technological, ecological and legal impacts on the project.

Participatory approach

Active involvement of stakeholders: Provision of information and participation in decision-making.

Discursive approach

Weighing up the different interests of stakeholders.

Repressive approach

Creation of "fait accompli": decisions are already taken without the participation of stakeholders.


A person or community of interest that has or could have an influence on the project or is affected or could be affected by it.

Stakeholder analysis

Method for analysing and visualising the influence of stakeholders on the project. Stakeholders are classified in a chart that measures the impact of the project on them and their influence on the success of the project.

Test yourself

Please answer the following questions independently. Take your time and think carefully about what you want to answer before having a look at the solutions.

What communication strategies can be used to manage the project environment?
  • Provision of information and participation in the decision-making process (participatory strategy).
  • Balancing of different interests (discursive strategy).
  • Presentation of "fait accompli" (repressive strategy).
What is the definition of a project environment?

The project environment is the environment in which the project is formulated, evaluated and implemented and which directly or indirectly affects the project and/or is affected by the project.

What aspects can contribute to the definition of the project environment?

The project environment can be defined by political, economic, sociological, technological, ecological (= environmental) and legal factors (PESTEL analysis).

What are stakeholders?

Stakeholders are persons or legal entities that are involved in the project, have an interest in the project or are affected by the project outcome.

Why is a stakeholder analysis carried out?
  • Because stakeholders often have different expectations of a project or the product.
  • Because stakeholders can either jeopardise a project or contribute to its success.
  • To ensure timely identification of project problems and opportunities.
What results does a stakeholder analysis provide?

It identifies potential stakeholders associated with a project. It is advisable to develop appropriate stakeholder policy measures based on this analysis.