Exercises "Product Backlog"
Here you will find the definitions of the most important terms from this chapter.
The Sprint Backlog lists all the tasks and activities that are to be carried out in the coming Sprint. This makes the Sprint Backlog part of the Product Backlog. The commitment to the Sprint Backlog is the Sprint Goal.
Product Backlog Item (= PBI)¶
All contents of the Product Backlog.
These can be, among others:
- User stories
Represent work(s) or value(s) and are designed to make key information more transparent. Each Scrum Artefact includes a Commitment that provides information in a transparent and bundled way to visualise the progress made.
The Commitment for the
- Product Backlog is the Product Goal.
- Sprint Backlog is the Sprint Goal.
- Increment is the Definition of Done.
Backlog Refinement Meeting¶
Regular time slot for reviewing and evaluating the Product Backlog. This involves reviewing the user stories in the Product Backlog, checking their relevance, and whether they still represent the interests of the stakeholders.
The Commitment of the Scrum Team to the Product Backlog. It serves as a compass for the development of the current product. It describes a concrete goal that is pursued with the Scrum project and generated by the Sprints.
Wishes and requirements for a final product that are recorded in "prose" by the Product Owner or the stakeholders.
Very extensive user stories that are still too large for a user story at the time of their rating as Epic.
Different user stories that are combined in a topic area.
Individual tasks are derived from the user stories. Usually processed by one person. Unlike user stories, Epics and Themes, tasks are not a direct part of the Product Backlog.
Graphical representation of customer satisfaction and quality. Three characteristics that are depicted in the Kano Model are:
- Basic attributes
- Performance attributes
- Attractive attributes
Answer the following questions independently. Please take your time and think carefully about what you would answer before revealing the solution.
Where are the customers' requirements listed?
In the Product Backlog.
When is the Product Backlog created?
The Product Backlog is created at the beginning of a project and is maintained throughout the entire project.
What is a Scrum Artefact?
The Scrum Artefacts are the three process documents the Product Backlog, which is described in detail in this chapter, as well as the Sprint Backlog and the Increment. The Scrum Artefacts help the Scrum Team to get an overview of the work(s) or value(s). Each Scrum Artefact has a Commitment to which the Scrum Team is committed and which creates transparency.
What does the abbreviation 'GUI' stand for?
GUI is the abbreviation for Graphical User Interface.
What does the acronym 'DEEP' stand for?
- (appropriately) Detailed
Why does the Product Backlog have to be prioritised? Which ranking makes sense?
Since not all entries of the Product Backlog are formulated in the same detail, are not equally important, and are not of the same size, it is important to prioritise the entries of the Product Backlog so that they can be processed in the determined order. The entries are ranked according to their importance and the higher a PBI is ranked in the Product Backlog, the more detailed it is described. The top entries are the PBIs that the Product Owner wants to have implemented first. The criterion for prioritisation is usually the business value contribution that the implementation of the respective user story delivers. But other criteria can also play a role, such as development costs, the value estimate, or risks.
Who has the final say in deciding on the prioritisation of the Product Backlog?
The Product Owner.
What does the abbreviation PBI stand for? What does it mean?
PBI stands for Product Backlog Items and this means the entries in the Product Backlog. These can be user stories, tasks, Epics, or Themes.
Explain the Kano model including its three characteristics.
The Kano model graphically represents the relationship between customer satisfaction ("low" to "high") and the realised quality ("not fulfilled" and "realised"). The three central characteristics are:
- Basic attributes
- are a matter of course and are taken for granted by the customer.
- do not make customers more satisfied if they are provided.
- make customers disproportionately dissatisfied if they are not provided.
- Performance attributes:
- are actively demanded by the customer.
- can for example be found out by observing the market.
- satisfy customers when they are provided.
- make customers dissatisfied if they are not provided.
- Attractive attributes:
- are not a matter of course and customers do not demand these features.
- do not make customers more dissatisfied if they are not provided.
- make customers disproportionately satisfied if they are provided.
What is the difference between user stories, Epics, and Themes?
User stories are wishes and requirements for a final product that are written down in "prose" by the Product Owner or his stakeholders. They don't make any reference to how the features are to be technically implemented - this comes later in the Sprint Backlog. Epics are very extensive user stories that are still too big for a user story at the time of their evaluation as an Epic. Themes are different user stories that are grouped into a common topic area.
What is the commitment to the Product Backlog? Please explain.
The commitment to the Product Backlog is the Product Goal. The Product Goal creates transparency and the Scrum Team commits to the Product Goal. It serves as a compass during development and describes a concrete goal that is pursued with the Scrum project and generated by the Sprints.
What questions should be asked when creating the Product Goal?
- How is the business model structured?
- Which audience / target group is to be addressed?
- What is the need or benefit of the client/ consumer?
- What are the unique selling points of the application or product compared to competitors?
- In which way is profit to be generated?
- Why is the project being carried out?
- What is the project about? What exactly is being offered?
Why does the Product Backlog need to be updated regularly?
Regularly assessing, reviewing, and updating the Product Backlog will ensure that the entries are still up-to-date and whether they correctly reflect the interests of the customer.
Which meeting is scheduled to update the Product Backlog? What is the process and who is responsible for this meeting?
The Backlog Refinement Meeting. There is no fixed agenda for this meeting, but a possible agenda could be as follows:
- Sorting and prioritising the Product Backlog Items
- Deleting entries that are no longer important
- Adding new entries to the Product Backlog
- Formulating and adding details to Product Backlog Items
- Summarising Product Backlog Items
- Estimating entries in the Product Backlog (effort estimation)
- If necessary, schedule releases
The Product Owner is responsible for the Backlog Refinement Meeting in his role as manager of the Product Backlog. He is supported by the Developers.